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MESOZOIKOS CENTURY (250-65 million years ago)

The Mesozoic is one of the three centuries of geological Fanerozoikou megaaiona , the second largest . The principle is placed at the end of the Permian period 251 million years ago, and ends 65.5 million years ago. Divided into three periods :

Triassic (251.0 to 199.6) - Jurassic (199.6 to 145.5) - Cretaceous (145.5 to 65.5)

The Mesozoic starts with the mass extinction at the end of the Permian period. Main group of organisms that disappear are the trilobites. During Mesozoic century many new species appeared as dinosaurs (occurring at the end of the Triassic period), the first mammals (during early Jurassic period), birds (during late Jurassic period) and spermatophytes (during early Cretaceous). The Mesozoic ends with mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period. In this mass extinction mainly hit the kinds of dry disappeared and dinosaurs.

Triassic Period (250-203 million years ago)

The Triassic is the first period of the Mesozoic era. The Friedrich von Alberti, 1834 gave this name to this period, based on the three rock layers found in the regions of Germany and north-western Europe. Originally there was a marine limestone with terrestrial mud, which was covered by sandstone.

During the Triassic was a single super continent (centered near the equator) called Pangaea (in all the Earth). East lies the ocean of Tethys and the rest of the Panthalassa (in the whole sea). This large supercontinent existed until the mid-Triassic. After gradually began to rupture and the creation of two separate dry, the LAVRA from the north and Gondwanaland in the south.

Global climate during this period was mostly hot and dry, with deserts and mountains with bushes. The average temperature of the Earth's surface was estimated by scientists that it was 17 degrees Celsius. There is no evidence for the existence of ice in both the boron and the South Pole. In fact the polar regions were rather wet and mild climate (suitable for growing forests, particularly conifers, and vertebrates, including reptiles). Sea begins the evolution of plant organisms (ie phytoplankton) and dominated by ammonites, mollusks and sea urchins, after surviving the destruction of Prem season. They also make their appearance in the first carnivorous reptiles, ichthyosaurs. On land reptiles that dominated the increase in number of species and size. Are dinosaurs classified in two categories. The ornithischia (in pelvic bones like chicken) and Saurischia (ie pelvic bones as the lizard). From 15 cm at the start, came up to 3-4 m, while began to appear and the first flying reptiles (pterosaurs).ι.

Jurassic Period (203-144 million years ago)

The Jurassic period is the middle period of the Mesozoic era. It was named in honor of Alexander von Humboldt, who did extensive research on the abundant limestone rocks of the mountain system of Jura, located in the Alps between France and Switzerland. In this period the Pangaea separated completely and fully form the LAVRA and Gondwanaland.οι.

The average temperature of the Earth's surface was 16.5 degrees Celsius and the global climate that prevailed was mostly hot and humid, suitable for the development of a rich jungle, where covered and most of the landscape and to form meadows. The flora was dominated in this period are gymnosperms and coniferous trees. The seas were fish, marine reptiles, marine crocodiles and many turtles. On shore we find vegetarian dinosaurs with very long neck and quite tall sarcophagi dinosaurs..

Cretaceous Period (144-65 million years ago)

The Cretaceous period is the most recent period of the Mesozoic era during which formed layers of "Cretaceous conformation" of the earth's crust. It owes its name to the "chalk" (ie chalk), which is a soft rock, limestone and almost white deposited extensive northeastern Europe areas (eg the white cliffs of Dover, England) and was appointed by the geologist Jean d 'Omalius d'Halloy in 1822.

The average temperature of the Earth's surface was 18 degrees Celsius and the global climate was mostly hot, resulting in the creation of many shallow lagoons due to the large amount of water evaporation. Seas appear corals, sponges, echinoderms, cephalopods, the klasmatovranchia, etc. There is evidence of frequent rainfall and snowfall but special they were not near the polar regions. On shore the first warm-mammals, pregnant their descendants within the body and feed the blood through the placenta. To maintain their body temperature stable, they need more food. They are small rodents, mouse size and live in forests (eg Alfadontas, Krousafontia, Salamvdalistis).

The seasons begin to rotate favoring deciduous trees. Some plants produce nectar and rudimentary flowers. At sea, on land and in the air is dominated by reptiles. Birds evolved from reptiles into two branches. The first has representatives with well-developed wings and the second has representatives with well developed legs for swimming. Folds in the Earth's crust begin creating the Alps, Andes and Rocky Mountains in the US and other mountain ranges. The continent Gondwanaland at the beginning of this period was almost intact, but later separated, creating N. America, Antarctica and Australia. Towards the end of this period the dinosaurs disappear along with 75% of the species were ever to Earth. In this disappearance managed to survive the turtles, snakes, lizards, crocodiles and some insects (termites, ants, butterflies, moths, aphids, grasshoppers, etc.).